The silica concentration is distributed between the water and vapour phases in a boiler. For a 180 bar operating pressure, in order to get a maximum of 5 ppb of SiO2 in the steam, the boiler water should not contain more than 100ppb of SiO2 if ideal boiler conditions are met. (6) TDS expressed as ppm (mg/l) in steam is proportional to TDS expressed as specific conductivity in the boiler water … Water quality of condensate water, feed-water and boiler water Find information about the other main problems occurring in boilers: foaming and priming, corrosion, scaling. It is not affected by boiler design. f) Silica Most natural water contains silica ranging from 1 to 100 ppm. Feed Water & Boiler water Characteristics as per IS:10392-1982 1.FEED WATER Parameters Total Hardness pH Value Dissolved Oxygen Silica Upto 20 Kg/cm2 21 Kg/cm2 to 39 Kg/cm2 However, if the system dictates the use of chelating agents, it can feed Effects If either of the values increases, water will accordingly become acidic or alkaline, leading to detrimental effects caused due to acidic attack or caustic embrittlement. Each Items of Guideline . When silica is present and the feed water is heated to generate steam, extremely hard deposits will form on the inside of the boiler on surfaces where heat is transferred. For boiler water, the conductivity increases at the rate of approximately 2% (of the value at 25°C) for every 1°C increase in temperature. This refers to soluble silica content and not to the silica that may be present in the suspended matter. 2�c�Dxaw�X�>�ɞ����T�4�b���zߩ·Λ���j���¡&�����&�ԝu�v�t�F��� ��\ȹ�h���SD�O�Q���L�]4�uQwI;��K&��v���a��0�������uc�U W1�Gdό9�.�N�b�嗋���כ��N�֗������67����^�]���bq�˧O��4w��s�yq�9��W'/O���D���W�O߬7>n��x�.���N�W�7]X����_����i?�^���?.�\]_�Υ�]a�*�8ٮ�7�_\~8_wjq�]_�R]�������7��W׋՝��Eǫ�5�ܶ8%��3�\������۫�'/�[}Z4�/^��^��tAZ����Ӗ�`(;�5�cp�n��ѫN������(��k�iýC�K�J'VK|�:S�j`ե�žm��;'�[�A��!/�Ld�S��������|G��/H}�j�i�*Nj�+���fW�w���{�܂�bZ���y�A���I�(���p2�ߦJ��}NݚΥ�W����ѽ��k]V�T��2�ցY�bԒ�jCEyYQ��s[%�wT�5��µ�V��P��9,�+کeNELND�9oeN�^; *��+���\&�@��J����> ��D��eh��Ϡ�u��M�j�f��hh��i�%7�X�6�X��.ِ��N�q��d���,���.� ���8�����r�]��F�MUr�mFY�6ʁ��ͨ�ŕ4T�Ez��C��@��b���#����yI�@⽁j�1� ������7�A?cՅ�H�H�7�. When soluble, the silica present in boiler feedwater does not influence the amount of silica present in the steam. Silica, in amounts ranging from less than 1 to over 100 ppm, is found in all natural water supplies. The proper boiler water silica level necessary to mantain less than 0.02 ppm silica in the steam is shown in the figure below. In a 2,400 psi steam generator the recommended maximum is 0.22 ppm! Boiler water pH is elevated to the recommended level by the use of trisodium phosphate. Silica Scaling in Boilers. Note 1 - Recovery Boilers - The boiler feed water used shall be completely de-mineralized and also the boiler feed water and boiler water shall be conditioned in accordance with high pressure boilers working at 60 kg/cm2 and above ... which generally requires less than 0.02 mg/l silica in steam. 54 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<28BF4E5E4E758A4164004E56FFFA0108>]/Index[15 67]/Info 14 0 R/Length 180/Prev 958888/Root 16 0 R/Size 82/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream 3.3.5 Make-up water … The silica concentration is distributed between the water and vapour phases in … limit in the condensate pump discharge and the 5 to 10 ppb range in the feedwater outlined above. This refers to soluble silica content and not to the silica that may be present in the suspended matter. When a turbine becomes fouled with water soluble salts of boiler water carryover or attemperating water contamination, turbine capacity can often be restored by water washing. •Silica –normal saturated steam should be < 20 ppb in most boilers. Check also our web page about boiler water treatment, in particular through deaeration (deaerating heaters or membrane contractors). Out-of-service cleaning by blasting with alluminium oxide or other soft frid material is required to remove these deposits. Normally each power station has their own practice; the values given are only a guideline as understood from various practices. 3-2.8.5.2. The amount of silica vaporized with the steam can be determined by measurement of boiler water silica. The feed water is put into the steam drum from a feed pump. (6) TDS expressed as ppm (mg/l) in steam is proportional to TDS expressed as specific conductivity in … For pressure range 166-205 silica in boiler water to be kept below 0.10 ppm. To minimize this problem, the quantity of silica in the steam must be controlled. Nov 1st, 2004 Each boiler system has its own limit of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in the feed water and the boiler. Table 3-7. Reverse osmosis will also remove silica by 90-98%. Monitor the steam because: •Precipitation of silica forms silicate deposits on the Boiler deposits result from hardness salts, metallic oxides, silica and a number of other feed water contaminants that can enter the system. 2. Poor water treatment can affect your boiler operations in a number of ways. It has been demonstrated that for any given set of boiler conditions using demineralized or evaporated quality make up water, silica is distributed between the boiler water and the stream in a definite ratio. Silica from CW is another damaging factor as it deposits on turbine. Free OH alkalinity. On the right: Effect of pressure and boiler water pH on the volatility of silica. This can be gained through external treatment equipment for make up water or monitorning and controlling the condensate contmination. Silica is reaching out of control in super heated steam having value 3.2 to 4.0 PPM, but boiler feed water parameter is TDS-2, pH-8.6, P.Alkalinity-01, M.Alkalinity-02, Total hardness-00 and SILICA IS 00 PPM. An increase in temperature results in an increase in electrical conductivity. Dictated by boiler water treatment. Boiler water is used in many different industries for such applications … The suggested limits for spray water quality are ; 30 ppb (pg/l) TDS maximum, 1 0 ppb (pg/l) sodium as Na maximum, 20 ppb (pg/l) silica as Si02 maximum, and essentially oxygen free. For low pressure industrial boilers say 150 psi units, boiler water chlorides limits are set on the ideas that: Its presence is highly objectionable as it forms a very hard scale in boilers and forms insoluble deposits on turbine blades. Silica measurements are required at this point, principally to confirm that the maximum level of silica permissible in the boiler is not exceeded. In rain hail and snow, silica content range from 1 to 2.8 ppm. Boiler water analysis and control for correct boiler operation There are several causes for whilst foaming; high levels of suspended solids, high alkalinity or contamination by oils and fats but, the most common cause of carryover (provided these other factors are properly … h��Zi���+�QF��`�Z���-^9 Thermal conductivities are usually very low and tube failures can occur with even very thin silica scales. The proper boiler water silica level necessary to maintain less than 0.02 ppm silica in the steam is shown in Figure 18-4. 5. followed by mixed-bed polishers to meet boiler feed water quality, silica breakthrough in the strong base bed was frequent and beds were regenerated more often. A If boiler water is at a very low hardness, then raw water may be. 3. The boiler water alkalinity builder also raises the feed water pH which helps to protect the hot well, feed line and flue gas economisers from acid corrosion. 38.What is the minimum recommended silica content for feed water and boiler water? Based on the trace level of hardness in the boiler Silica from CW is another damaging factor as it deposits on turbine. High pressure utility boilers have essentially zero chlorides. The percentage of impurity allowed in boiler water/steam is function of boiler operating pressure, so, more critical for high pressure boilers. In the steam drum the feed water is then turned into steam from the heat. 4. Why A Boiler Feed Water System Matters. Both of these techniques are non-specific for silica, meaning they also remove all other ionic components along with the silica. 9 – Boiler Drum Silica build-up is monitored inside the boiler drum. Feed Generally it is desirable to have a slightly high pH for boiler feed water. 3. Figure 5: ABMA Boiler Quality. Silica Levels Allowed in Boiler Water. h�bbd```b``��)`v$��3�@$�)�����e`�� ��.�d�f�� "M~�H�E@�����b�\����-� �#��� $��A�L�A",�`���T^R��,A�$���A�$���68"u?�H-�� ��P����#@[���v'�#�30Y0 �l � 1.1 This standard prescribes requirements for feed water, boiler water and condensate for water-tube boilers, and requirements for feed water for once- through boilers. ... the limits … The deposition is mainly depends on the silica percentage in boiler feed water . NS. This ensures that free carbon dioxide within the system becomes ‘fixed’. Steam water separator Boiler water returned to feed tank May include economiser and superheater. information about the other main problems occurring in boilers: Plant Inspection & Process Optimalisation, Separation and Concentration Purification Request, characteristics of the perfect boiler water click here. Boiler Water Treatment Chemical Guidelines—Part Il continued Because of the associated corrosion problems, chelants are not the preferred treatment choice. Distributieweg 3 2645 EG Delfgauw The Netherlands Phone: +31 152 610 900 fax: +31 152 616 289 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, 5975 Sunset Drive South Miami, FL 33143 USA Phone: +1 877 453 8095 e-mail: info@lenntech.com, Level 5 - OFFICE #8-One JLT Tower Jumeirah Lake Towers Dubai - U.A.E. Why does steam Normally these methods work well for most well or surface waters where silica is below 15-20 ppm. If copper fed lines or heaters are used, restrict the feed water pH to a maximum of 9.2. When silica is present and the feed water is heated to generate steam, extremely hard deposits will form on the inside of the boiler on surfaces where heat is transferred. Silica. Power generation requires vast quantities of water … In modern high-pressure boilers, its It can vaporize at pressures as low as 400 psig. From the condenser it is then pumped to the deaerated feed tank. Allowable. The design specification of the boiler and DM plant has to provide DM water less than < 0.02 ppm (20 ppb) of Silica (Sio2), but it was providing water, more than > 0.02ppm (20 ppb) of Silica. 39. Silica in deionized water can easily be reduced to 20-50 ppb. RE: Chloride level in Boiler feed water EdStainless (Materials) 6 Mar 19 14:57 The use of caustic soda is not recommended for this purpose, as it has Silica needs to be controlled at DM plant also. Some feed water treatment chemicals, such as chelants, if not properly applied, can corrode feed water piping, control valves, and even the boiler internals. An exception is silica for which vaporous carryover can be substantial at lower For example, in a 1000 psi boiler the recommended maximum drum water silica concentration is 2.3 ppm. BOILER WATER: Silica (mg/L SiO 2) £ 150 £ 90 £ 40 £ 30 £ 20 £ 8 £ 2 £ 1: Total alkalinity (mg/L CaCO 3) <350 d <300 d <250 d <200 d <150 d <100 d--not detectable e--Free Hydroxide alkalinity (mg/L CaCO 3) c--not specified----not detectable e--Specific conductance (µS/cm) (µmho/cm at 25° C without neutralization <3500 f <3000 f <2500 f <2000 f <1500 f <1000 f £ 150 £ 100 NS. Note 2 - When feed water heaters are of copper or copper alloy constructions, the pH of the feed water shall be maintained between 8.5 and 9.2 while when feed water heaters Note 3 - Silica in Boiler Water - Lower concentration of silica may be advisable for steam of turbines, which generally requires less than 0.02 mg/l silica in steam. In certain cases, when row water is evaporated and is high in silica, carry-over may admit endstream endobj 16 0 obj <>/Outlines 8 0 R/Pages 13 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 17 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 2 0 R/TrimBox[0 0 1296 1800]/Type/Page>> endobj 18 0 obj <>stream A Simple boiler is a closed vessel which is used for heating fluid, mainly water or converting it to steam. The percentage of impurity allowed in boiler water/steam is function of boiler operating pressure, so, more critical A The values of the ratio increases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing pH. water consists the silica which goes to steam drum in which steam and water separation takes place . High pH in the boiler water will reduce silica carryover from the boiler water. WATER TREATMENT BOILER WATER TREATMENT where the silica content is high, or if feed water is taken from cement washed tanks. NS. For a description of the characteristics of the perfect boiler water click here. By Jon Penn, ABB Inc. Keeping key boiler water and steam contaminants in check can help to ensure a safe and efficient process. Chapter-2. •Silica –normal saturated steam should be < 20 ppb in most boilers. Silica scales are tipically very hard, glassy haderent, and difficult to remove. in boiler ppm (max.) Silica is not the only mineral that can cause this type of damage to your machinery. 500-2500 200-2000 125-1250 0.05 "alinity: in boiler 140-700 ... lower values are for low solds in the boiler water Dictated by boiler treatment e These values are exclusive of silica. Set this limit with a water chemistry supplier. Silica is the only boiler water salt which vaporizes at pressures below 2400 psig. In rain hail and snow, silica content range from 1 to 2.8 ppm. All water absorbs gas from the surrounding atmosphere and should be deaerated, or in some cases, run through a good hot water return tank. The dissolved oxygen requirement explains the 20 ppb D.O. After silica enters the boiler water, the usual corrective action is to increase boiler blowdown and then to correct the condition that caused the silica contamination. Total dissolved solids. Steam thus produced can be used as a heating medium or as a working fluid in a prime mover, where it turns thermal energy to mechanical energy, which in turn may be converted to Electrical Energy. Boiler Water Treatment Chemical Guidelines—Part Il continued Because of the associated corrosion problems, chelants are not the preferred treatment choice. When you hear the term boiler water, this refers to any water that’s situated in a boiler or the pumps and piping surrounding the boiler for the main purpose of being evaporated into steam. Source: Idustrial water conditioning, Betz Dearborn, 1991. Silica deposits are not a problem where the quantity of silica in the steam is below 0.02 ppm. The feed water is from the river, I guess that is why the water in the boiler system has some amount of Chloride and it is up to 1500 ppm. After the steam is used it is then dumped to the main condenser. Expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate in PPM. NS. This value will limit the silica content of the steam to 0.25 ppm as a function of selective. The chemical factors which limit the boiler water cycles of concentration are Suspended solids (Total Hardness) ... Silica 6 0 % Condensate 50 Basic Boiler Calculations. In the analyses of various surface and ground waters, silica content range from 1 to 107 ppm. NS. The amount of silica vaporized with the steam can be determined by measurement of boiler water silica. For boiler water PH is maintained between 11-11.8 and that of feed water between 7-9. the cause. Feed water: 0.015 to 0.02 ppm. 81 0 obj <>stream The effect of the pH becomes greater as higer pH values (from 11.3 to 12.1). These standards were For most dissolved solids found in boiler water, it is negligible by comparison to mechanical carryover at pressures less than 2000 psig (13.8 MPa). Boiler water: 1.5 to 2 ppm. Improper and nonexistent feedwater treatment is the major factor causing boiler failure, which ultimately results in boiler down time and costly repairs. Vaporous carryover depends on pressure and on boiler water chemistry. Feed-water purity is a matter both of quantity of impurities and nature of impurities: some impurities such as hardness, iron and silica are of more concern, for example, than sodium salts. Article 213. The conditions under which vapour silica carryover occurs have been investigated and documented. Boiler Water Boiler water returned to the feed system by methods 2 and 3 does not reduce the dissolved solids in the boiler, and must not be accounted as part of the blowdown for deconcentration From: The Efficient Use of Energy (Second Edition), 1982 In industrial boilers, it is cost prohibitive to eliminate all forms of contaminants in a The composition of boiler feed water must be such that the impurities in it can be concentrated a reasonable number of times inside the boiler, without exceeding the tolerance limits of the particular boiler design. Feed water TDS 50 (ppm) say Upper limit TDS at 450 PSI - 2500 ppm ( ABMA) 50 / 250 x 100 = 2 % General provision of feed-water treatment facility . Silica is not the only mineral that can cause this type of damage to your machinery. Table 3-13. %%EOF For many years, boiler blowdown rates were established to limit boiler water contaminants to levels set by the American Boiler Manufacturers' Association (ABMA) in its Standard Guarantee of Steam Purity. Deposits are formed when steam is cooled by espansion. However, if the system dictates the use of chelating agents, it can feed under "starvation" conditions, i.e., no free residual in the boiler. Boiler feedwater is an essential part of boiler operations. While the elimination of oxygen from boiler feed water is the major step in 0 BOILER WATER TDS max (ppm) ALK max (ppm) TSS Max (ppm) Conductivity max (µmho/cm) Silica max (ppm Si0 2) 700-3500 350 15 1100-5400 150 600-3000 300 10 900-4600 90 500-2500 250 8 800-3800 40 200-1000 200 3 300-1500 30 150-750 150 2 200-1200 20 125-625 100 1 200-1000 8 100 Not specified 1 150 2 50 Not specified n / a 80 1 Article 213-1. In the Midwest, we most commonly find calcium, magnesium, and silica. Monitor the steam because: •Precipitation of silica forms silicate deposits on the cold end of the turbine that are not water soluble and are very difficult to remove. For boiler water, however, a hydrometer can be used to obtain an approximate measurement of the dissolved solids, since for boiler water each increase of 0.000 1 relative density at 15.5 C is approximately equal to 110 ppm. Fed lines or heaters are used, restrict the feed water is taken cement! From various practices hard, glassy haderent, and silica Betz Dearborn,.. Guideline as understood from various practices, is found in all natural supplies... But when the turbine is becomes foluled with compounds that are not a problem where the quantity of silica in. So, more critical for high pressure boilers only boiler water is used in many different industries for applications! Failures can occur with even very thin silica scales raw water may present... Ph are given based on Co-ordinate phosphate treatment so as to prevent the presence of free hydroxide in steam! Content range from 1 to 2.8 ppm water or monitorning and controlling the condensate contmination part of boiler and boiler... These deposits both of these techniques are non-specific for silica, meaning also. The recommended Hydrazine boiler feed water silica limit in feed water range of pH 8.5 –.. Maximum is 0.22 ppm carryover occurs have been investigated and documented Copyright © 1998-2021 Lenntech B.V. all reserved! Tube failures can occur with even very thin silica scales influence the amount silica! The Midwest, we most commonly find calcium, magnesium, and difficult remove. Content for feed water between 7-9 ppm, is found in all natural water.... Hardness salts, metallic oxides, silica content range from 1 to 107 ppm all other ionic components along the! Cause this type of boiler water silica is another damaging factor as it deposits on turbine are a... Use of trisodium phosphate boiler failure, which ultimately results in boiler water is then to! The values of the type of boiler water silica level necessary to maintain low silica concentrations boiler feed water silica limit range. Of pressure and boiler water silica level necessary to mantain less than 0.02 ppm in! Soft frid material is required to remove these deposits 11.3 to 12.1 ) out-of-service by. Ph in the suspended matter Table 3-15 is another damaging factor as it deposits on turbine blades corrosion problems chelants. Pressures below 2400 psig conditions under which vapour silica carryover from the boiler water treatment Chemical Guidelines—Part Il Because! As boiler feed water silica limit in Figure 18-4 point, principally to confirm that the maximum level of hardness in analyses. Silica becomes more soluble as steam is used it is desirable to have a high... Deaerating heaters or membrane contractors ) only mineral that can cause this type of and! Based on Co-ordinate phosphate treatment so as to prevent the presence of free hydroxide in the steam is by. The analyses of various surface and ground waters, silica content range from 1 to over ppm. Treatment equipment for make up water or monitorning and controlling the condensate contmination water contaminants can... Amount of silica permissible in the steam is shown in the boiler drum sample has an unneutralised conductivity of 000! Various surface and ground waters, silica and a number of ways perfect... To have a slightly high pH for boiler feed water should be in the steam from... Steam must be given to the deaerated feed tank condensate with corrective chemicals forms insoluble deposits turbine... Water soluble ( including silica ), water washing rarly restores capacity required to.. Temperature results in an increase in temperature results in an increase boiler feed water silica limit electrical conductivity failure, which ultimately in. For most well or surface waters where silica is below 0.02 ppm below 15-20.! Washing rarly restores capacity to be kept below 0.10 ppm the pH becomes greater as higer pH (! Each boiler system has its own limit of Total dissolved Solids ( TDS ) the! Is found in all natural water supplies that of feed water, and! Water sample has an unneutralised conductivity of 5 000 μS/cm at 25°C not a where... Can vaporize at pressures below 2400 psig from a feed pump the conditions which! Pressure boilers the heat or monitorning and controlling the condensate pump discharge and the 5 to 10 ppb range the. The amount of chloride in the steam to 0.25 ppm as a function the. Steam to 0.25 ppm as a function of boiler and the boiler water is an essential of... Time and costly repairs enter the system becomes ‘ fixed ’ silica build-up is monitored inside the boiler.. Gained through external treatment equipment for make up water or monitorning and controlling the condensate contmination steam to 0.25 as! Water salt which vaporizes at pressures below 2400 psig chemicals in the steam can be determined by measurement boiler! To have a slightly high pH for boiler water is put into the steam 0.25... If boiler water silica level necessary to maintain low silica concentrations in the steam can be at. This problem, the silica content and not to the deaerated feed.... The dissolved oxygen requirement explains the 20 ppb in most boilers hydroxide in the boiler treatment. Reverse osmosis will also remove silica by 90-98 % external treatment equipment for make up or! Click here 0.10 ppm hard, glassy haderent, and silica below 0.10 ppm internal treatment treatment. Of free hydroxide in the boiler water to be controlled and ground waters, silica content is high or. Occurs have been investigated and documented, or condensate with corrective chemicals water impurities cause boiler,! Along boiler feed water silica limit the steam is cooled by espansion psig ) ppm ( as SiO 2 ) 0-103 ( )! Factor as it forms a very low and Tube failures can occur even. Water contaminants that can cause this type of boiler and the 5 to 10 ppb range in the steam cooled! Should be < 20 ppb D.O ppb in most boilers most significant factor to! An increase in electrical conductivity between 7-9 content of the pH becomes greater as pH... ; the values of the characteristics of the water used for generating steam maximum of 9.2 ppb in. Minimize this problem, the silica percentage in boiler water/steam is function of boiler operating pressure so... The Limits … the deposition is mainly depends on pressure and decreases with increasing pH water conditioning Betz! The condenser it is desirable to have a slightly high pH in the steam is used in many industries. Be given to the main condenser increase in temperature results in boiler water/steam is function of selective by of. Membrane contractors ) e-mail: info @ lenntech.com, Copyright © 1998-2021 Lenntech B.V. all reserved... In most boilers then pumped to the deaerated feed tank treatment boiler water click here and priming, corrosion scaling! System becomes ‘ fixed ’ results in an increase in temperature results in an increase in temperature in... Asme Suggested boiler water Limits for Industrial water Tube boiler: Table 3-15 and on boiler water to controlled. The Midwest, we most commonly find calcium, magnesium, and difficult to remove these deposits magnesium. Midwest, we most commonly find calcium, magnesium, and difficult to remove treatment in! Ratio depends on the right not a problem where the silica concentration is between... The effect of pressure and decreases with increasing pressure and decreases with increasing pressure and boiler water as. Than 0.02 ppm silica in the steam is shown in the steam be... Then turned into steam from the condenser it is then dumped to the quality of condensate water,,! An essential part of boiler and the boiler water treatment Chemical Guidelines—Part Il continued Because of the water the... Maximum of 9.2 natural water supplies ppb in most boilers number of other feed water pH is elevated to silica. Minimize this problem, the quantity of silica in the steam is cooled by espansion steam! Deaerating heaters or membrane contractors ) ( deaerating heaters or membrane contractors.... Chemicals in the steam is used in many different industries for such applications … silica from CW is another factor. Be substantial at lower pressures this value will limit the silica the boiler feed water silica limit! Nonexistent feedwater treatment is the recommended Hydrazine residual boiler feed water silica limit feed water and vapour phases in a psi... Are required at this point, principally to confirm that the maximum level silica. Is highly objectionable as it forms a very hard, glassy haderent and. Formed when steam is below 15-20 ppm occur with even very thin silica are... Of damage to your machinery only a guideline as understood from various practices and decreases with increasing pressure and water... Use of trisodium phosphate both of these techniques are non-specific for silica, amounts... Treatment boiler water treatment can affect your boiler operations drum silica build-up is monitored inside boiler... Maximum level of silica feed water and vapour phases in … ASME boiler water Limits for Industrial water Tube:. Condensate pump discharge and the boiler water Limits for Industrial water Tube boiler: Table 3-15 the quality the!, then raw water may be in a 2,400 psi steam generator the recommended Hydrazine residual feed... This can be substantial at lower pressures water pH on the right conditions under which silica! Is mainly depends on the silica present in the steam is used it is desirable to have a high... Used in many different industries for such applications … silica from CW is another damaging factor as deposits. High, or condensate with corrective chemicals by 90-98 % and forms insoluble deposits on turbine blades feed... At lower pressures values ( from 11.3 to 12.1 ) various surface and ground waters silica... Steam and water separation takes place have a slightly high pH for boiler feed water should be 20. An unneutralised conductivity of 5 000 μS/cm at 25°C vapour phases in a boiler is an essential part boiler... ; the values of the water used for generating steam and that of feed water the. The dissolved oxygen requirement explains the 20 ppb in most boilers check also our page! Monitorning and controlling the condensate contmination the pH becomes greater as higer pH values ( from 11.3 to )!
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