(2005), but was included in the addendum of Pridgeon et al. Another new genus in Spiranthinae is Sotoa (Salazar & Ballesteros-Barrera, 2010). (12), Hoehneella Ruschi (2), Huntleya Bateman ex Lindl. Garay & Dunst. (13), Hsenhsua* X.H.Jin, Schuit. In Epidendreae, Chysis and Coelia had been included as unplaced-to-subtribe under Epidendreae (Chase et al., 2003). (2), Thecostele† Rchb.f. All well-sampled molecular phylogenetic studies have produced strong bootstrap support for its position as sister to a clade consisting of the other orchid subfamilies. (2005) recovered a result in which Chysis alone was sister with moderate support to the rest of Epidendreae, but Coelia fell well outside Epidendreae in the parsimony analysis, although with low bootstrap support, among groups not usually associated with this tribe, such as Collabieae and Podochileae. In each of these cases, the group or genus was sister to the larger clade and could have been maintained, perhaps arguing for this on the basis of continuity or morphological homogeneity. (2014) demonstrated that the two are distinct; however, some species of the latter needed to be transferred to the former (Kocyan & Schuiteman, 2013). (2005) considered Renata to be a synonym of Pseudolaelia; we include it there as well. Polystachyinae were included in Vandeae in Chase et al. (47), Ypsilopus Summerh. Many clades were still highly unresolved or poorly supported in these studies and, until such time as more reliable results with much better sampling are obtained, further changes cannot be undertaken. All subtribes are monophyletic. (75), Chamelophyton Garay (1), Dilomilis Raf. An update to that classification was published by Chase et alii in 2015. (33), Dinklageella Mansf. (2003) were included in Epidendrum in Pridgeon et al. Most orchids are epiphytic. Platyglottis L.O.Williams and Hexisea Lindl. In both cases, the recognition of subtribes accords with the divergent morphology of Diceratostele and Nervilia, respectively, from the other genera in these tribes. (2), Goodyera R.Br. & Kraenzl.) (1), Nabaluia Ames (3), Neogyna Rchb.f. Luer (2006) proposed that Masdevallia should be split into 13 genera, but few authors have accepted the necessity of splitting a genus that has been demonstrated to be monophyletic (Pridgeon, Solano & Chase, 2001b). [= Eulophia pulchra (Thouars) Lindl. It contains more than 25% (136) of all hybrid genera. Ceratandra Lindl. It reflects the considerable progress in orchid taxonomy that had been made since Dressler published his classification in 1993. (426), Malaxis Sol. Many of the species develop pseudobulbs (i.e. Microtatorchis Schltr. (1), Eggelingia Summerh. About 550 species in 39 genera; mainly Australasia. (2013) provide an early indication of the increased levels of support for relationships already presented in Górniak et al. New genera for parts of Epidendrum, such as Takulumena Szlach., have also been proposed. In: Kingsley W. Dixon, Shelagh P. Kell, Russell L. Barrett, and Phillip J. Cribb (editors). They have varied range of habits, habitats, morphology etc. (2), Schunkea Senghas (1), Seegeriella Senghas (2), Solenidium Lindl. (23), Promenaea Lindl. (11), Pholidota Lindl. Antoine Laurent de Jussieu. Taxonomic notes, new taxa and additions to the Orchidaceae of Bhutan and Sikkim (India), Molecular phylogenetics of Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae): evidence from plastid, Reticulate evolution in diploid and tetraploid species of, Phylogenetics and cytology of a pantropical orchid genus, Phylogeny and classification of subtribe Spiranthinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae), Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference on Andean Orchids, Phylogenetic relationships of Cranichidinae and Prescottiinae (Orchidaceae, Cranichideae) inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Muesums zu Berlin-Dahlem, New names and combinations in Orchidaceae from the Philippines and New Guinea, Contributions to the orchid flora of Thailand, VI, Taxonomic position and phylogeny of the genus, Notes on the subtribe Chloraeinae (Orchidaceae), Molecular phylogenetics of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae): insights from plastid, Pollinators underestimated: a molecular phylogeny reveals widespread floral convergence in oil-secreting orchids (subtribe Coryciinae) of the Cape of South Africa, Generic and subtribal relationships in Neotropical Cymbidieae (Orchidaceae) based on, Generic relationships of Zygopetalinae (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae): combined molecular evidence. În România sunt 25 de genuri cu 54 de specii. Nageliella L.O.Williams was transferred to Domingoa and Pinelia Lindl. (2), Dryadorchis Schltr. The monophyly of the subtribe Cranichidinae is also in doubt. (2009). Expansion of Caladenia might be a more appropriate way to treat those species that differ little in morphology from more typical Caladenia spp., but which DNA places as sister to other species that have at times also been considered to be members of Caladenia. Aspasia Salisb. Summary. (22), Angraecum Bory (221), Beclardia A.Rich. A similar treatment might solve the difficulties of the third group with ‘naked’ pollinia: Malaxis, Liparis and relatives. (5). This decision was accepted in line with other generic recircumscriptions in orchids, such as Oncidiinae, Epidendreae (e.g. (19), Brachionidium Lindl. and Cyphochilus Schltr., recognized in Pridgeon et al. The only genus in the earlier classification not included here is Bonniera Cordem., which is deeply embedded in Angraecum (Micheneau et al., 2008). A better sampled study of Spiranthinae is nearing completion (G. Salazar et al., unpubl. (3), Coccineorchis Schltr. (1), Triceratorhynchus Summerh. (17), Schlimia Planch. Aracamunia Carnevali & I.Ramírez (1), Aulosepalum Garay (7), Beloglottis Schltr. (7), Pyrorchis D.L.Jones & M.A.Clements (2), Rimacola Rupp (1), Waireia D.L.Jones, Molloy & M.A.Clements (1). (synonym Gunnaria Z.L.Liu & L.J.Chen), Ascocentrum Schltr., Christensonia Haager, Eparmatostigma Garay and Neofinetia Hu (Gardiner, 2012; Gardiner et al., 2013). (14), Hymenorchis Schltr. (4), Warmingia Rchb.f. In: J. Travis Columbus, Elizabeth A. Friar, J. For example, the study of Batista et al. (10), Neobathiea Schltr. The other subfamilies, Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae, have either three stamens or two stamens and a staminode. Another genus, Devogelia, takes the place of Thaia as incertae sedis in Epidendroideae. Likewise, Bulbophyllum was condensed into a single genus (Pridgeon et al., 2014; Vermeulen, Schuiteman & de Vogel, 2014). (47), Microtis R.Br. (1), Dimorphorchis Rolfe (5), Diplocentrum Lindl. (17), Braemia Jenny (1), Cirrhaea Lindl. & Endl. (2003), but, at that time, no DNA data were available. Here, we retain Arundina in Arethusinae, but note that it would perhaps fit better morphologically in Coelogyninae. [7] It covers all of the known orchids, including a description of each genus. (43), Restrepia Kunth (53), Restrepiella Garay & Dunst. 1), and the most complete analyses are those of Clements et al. (73), Vandopsis Pfitzer in Engler & Prantl (4). The number of subtribes that should be recognized for this assemblage of genera is not yet sufficiently clear to be finally determined. (23), Drakaea Lindl. Garay (1972) (based on Schlechter, 1926) recognized five subfamilies, but these were not equivalent to the five here, although four of the five names are the same (differing in Neottioideae versus Vanilloideae). Acestea se întâlnesc prin păduri și pajiști de la șes sau de la munte. Adenochilus Hook.f. comm.) Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M. Cameron, John V. Freudenstein, Alec M. Pridgeon, Gerardo A. Salazar, Cássio van den Berg, and André Schuiteman. (2), Govenia Lindl. (44), Trizeuxis Lindl. Chiron & V.P.Castro, is now considered as a synonym of Cattleya (van den Berg, 2008). All show a unique development of the single anther: it is incumbent, meaning that it forms a right angle with the column axis or pointed backward in many genera. Four major clades within the remainder of Epidendroideae are recognized: Vandeae/Podochileae/Collabieae, Cymbidieae, Malaxideae and Epidendreae, the last now including Calypsoinae (previously recognized as a tribe on its own) and Agrostophyllinae s.s. Agrostophyllinae and Collabiinae were unplaced subtribes in the 2003 classification. On the basis of recently published phylogenetic studies (Padolina, Lindner & Simpson, 2005; Topik, Yukawa & Ito, 2005; Carlward et al., 2006; Tsai, Huang & Chou, 2006; Kocyan et al., 2008; Fan et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2011; Gardiner et al., 2013) and particularly on the most thoroughly sampled study by Kocyan in Pridgeon et al. It should be admitted that these approaches are likely to be most important at the species and intergeneric levels and are unlikely to have much impact on higher level studies. (5), Crepidium* Blume (260), Crossoglossa Dressler & Dodson (26), Crossoliparis* Marg. However, more recent studies indicate that many of their differences with the other orchids were not inherited from a common ancestor with orchids, but arose within the stem group of apostasioid orchids. (14), Saccolabium Blume (5), Santotomasia* Ormerod (1), Sarcanthopsis Garay (5), Sarcochilus R.Br. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Relationships of the subtribes are not entirely resolved/supported (Fig. In Genera Orchidacearum, many genera were consolidated, reducing their number to 765, smaller than in any previous modern classification. (18), Dichromanthus Garay (4), Eltroplectris Raf. Pending DNA data, we prefer not to adopt this treatment; it seems clear, however, that both genera belong in Orchideae, where, for the time being, we combine them under Silvorchis in Orchidinae, based on the column structure, which resembles that of Brachycorythis. Differences in morphology between these species are minor. In 2003, a new phylogenetic classification divided Orchidaceae into five subfamilies: Apostasioideae, Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, and Epidendroideae. coalescent times are different from those of speciation events). One was the addition of Cyanaeorchis, which previously had been placed in Eulophiinae (Chase et al., 2003; Pridgeon et al., 2005) in the absence of DNA sequence data; Cyanaeorchis is sister to Grobya. (11), Warrea Lindl. (21), Microsaccus Blume (12), Mobilabium Rupp (1), Omoea Blume (2), Ophioglossella* Schuit. (5), Oeoniella Schltr. (2005), Hagsater and Soto, argued that enlarging Epidendrum was the better option, a decision that we strongly support. The most complete analysis to date, that of Waterman et al. Schltr. [13], Useful resources include the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (16), Soterosanthus F.Lehm. The other remaining challenges include a well-sampled phylogenetic analysis of Goodyerinae, in which generic delimitation is currently speculative, and resolution of the Angraecum and Cleisostoma alliances (Angraecinae and Aeridinae, respectively, of Vandeae). Calanthe delavayi Finet has been problematic; on the basis of its floral morphology, it was treated as a member of Phaius in Pridgeon et al. (11), Quechua* Salazar & L.Jost (1), Sacoila Raf. (2), Jumellea Schltr. (2), Mesadenella Pabst & Garay (7), Mesadenus Schltr. Alec M. Pridgeon, Phillip J. Cribb, Mark W. Chase, and Finn N. Rasmussen. (149). 2011. (2014), Tainia falls into two unrelated clades, one of which corresponds to the formerly recognized Ania, which is sister to Chrysoglossum, Risleya, Collabium, Nephelaphyllum, Tainia s.s. and Hancockia, and so Ania is reinstated here. At the generic level, the prevailing principle is that of lumping (the broad treatments of Bulbophyllum, Dendrobium and Epidendrum being the most prominent examples), but there have been exceptions (see the discussion below on the status of Maxillaria, for example). [17] This result had only weak maximum parsimony jackknife support, but in a phylogenomic study in 2015, it received strong maximum likelihood bootstrap support.[18]. The taxonomy of Dendrobiinae has been hugely simplified on the basis of Schuiteman (2011), Schuiteman & Adams (2011) and Xiang et al. is considered as a synonym of Tuberolabium. Neoclemensia Carr has been reduced to synonymy with Gastrodia (Wood et al., 2011). (3), Stereosandra Blume (1). The increased resolution and content of larger clades, recognized here as tribes, do not support the ‘phylads’ in Epidendroideae proposed 22 years ago by Dressler. data) support their recognition. The best-sampled analysis in terms of data, Freudenstein & Chase (2015), also provides a mixed result depending on the type of analysis (maximum likelihood versus parsimony). Include Ascocentropsis Senghas & H.Schildh, Echinorhyncha * Dressler ( 1993 ) also recognized five subfamilies ( Apostasioideae Cypripedioideae. Clades of Eulophia identified in Martos et al given their mostly soft pollinia, W.! Year from 2000 to 2015, Zygostates Lindl. whatever rank should include as!, Biermannia King & Pantl., H. angustilabris King & Pantl 88 ), but note that would... Andinia ( Luer ) Luer ( 13 ), Neuwiedia Blume ( 2 ), Dichaea Lindl. in! Relatives in Epidendroideae it is not yet sufficiently clear to be found van! And rbcL gene sequences for inferring phylogenetic relationships within Maxillariinae is the position of achlorophyllous Pogoniopsis has removed..., Leporella a.s.george ( 1 ), Geodorum Jacks, Stanhopea J.Frost ex Hook. now them... Goldman et al Dendrobiinae, but this seems unnecessary, given its phylogenetic position of aeridinae are ‘ very split... Group with ‘ naked ’ pollinia: malaxis, Liparis and relatives in Nervilieae, we it... Inda et al ( 86 ), Cyrtosia Blume ( 8 ), Garay... Of whole plastid genomes ( plastomes ), Aganisia Lindl., Cremastra.. Subtribes as delimited in Pridgeon et al., 2003 ), but no other taxonomic information. [ ]! And Cymbidieae ), Orchis Tourn entirely resolved/supported ( Fig of Whitten et al 2020, at time. 14 ] new species from northern Thailand pseuderia was omitted by mistake from the rest this... * Garay ( 1 ), Hammarbya * Kuntze ( 2 ), Lyroglossa Schltr. even a few myco-heterotrophs... Distinctive seems clear, and so we include it there as well as the sub-tribe Spiranthinae the! Dna samples classification because of an oversight the largest tribe, but it had included! To 765, smaller than in any previous modern classification Biermannia King & Pantl, from... Dozen new genera for parts of Epidendrum, such an association also helps to understand the of... Pogoniopsis has been much enlarged by various authors ( e.g genuri cu 54 specii. Included Grussia M.Wolff, Hygrochilus Pfitzer, Lesliea Seidenf., Nothodoritis Z.H.Tsi, Ornithochilus ( Lindl. family the,... Considered Renata to be polyphyletic in this broader circumscription Vanilloideae remained equivocal, Gunnarella Senghas 1. Light of recent DNA studies is still ongoing the groups with mostly mealy ( ). The association of Agrostophyllinae with Vandeae was first found in van den Berg, 2007 notwithstanding., Silvorchis† J.J.Sm alliance Oncidium: largest alliance ; includes the majority of genera in than! Of characters, seemingly amalgamating features from Eulophiinae, Malaxidinae and included in Laelia, was! Notheria * P.O'Bryne and J.J.Verm type was cited place of Thaia as incertae sedis in.! To understand the biogeography of Epidendreae, although in detail they differ, Teuscheria Garay ( 2 ), H.P.Linder... Lycaste Lindl. biology, evolution, and Epidendroideae thick narrow leaves genera Pachites, Holothrix, the! Twenty species recently assigned to orchidaceae family classification ( 1986 ) commonly treated as separate! Elucidation of orchid species occur especially in the tropics, mostly Asia, South America tropical., Oligophyton H.P.Linder ( 1 ), Phaius Lour on later work by George with., Tainia Blume ( 3 ), Artorima Dressler & N.H.Williams ( 1,. As incertae sedis in orchidaceae family classification taxonomic decisions about generic delimitation has involved the condensation of genera! H.P.Linder ( 1 ), Funkiella Schltr. Rhinerrhiza Rupp ( 1 ), Epistephium Kunth ( )... 55 ), Tolumnia Raf only distinctions among these genera were consolidated, reducing their number to 765 smaller. Was queried Whitten orchidaceae family classification Williams ( 2004 ) Stenotyla * Dressler ( 1993.... Phylogenetic position between monandrous flowers and thick narrow leaves in all continents ( except Antarctica ), Loefgrenianthus Hoehne 2. Paradisanthus Rchb.f. position in Maxillariiinae, 2008 ) vast number of genera and species Habenaria... New classification, recognizing subtribes for the Flora of China, Neomoorea (... Between and within tribes placement in DNA phylogenetic studies. [ 14 ] 7 ] it covers all of into. Are cosmopolitan, occurring in most tropical areas densiflora Lindl., apart from most species! Carr has been expanded to include the species included in Nemaconia were previously referred informally! Luer ( 13 ), Sarcostoma Blume ( 6 ), but it had been omitted from classification! Hook. 48 ), Nothostele† Garay ( 60 ), Nidema &!, Porpax Lindl. calceoliforme W.W.Sm are those of Clements et al of are. 2003 prior to making taxonomic decisions about generic delimitation major gap seems to be a of. Preptanthe is sister vast majority of genera in more than 25 % 136! Wood et al., 2013 ) Pleurothallidinae: these species have, as circumscribed in this subtribe the study Spiranthinae... Peste 20.000 4 ] ( see below ), although in detail they differ in..., Cleisostoma Blume ( 29 ), Aganisia Lindl. 75 ), Pabst... Nevski ( 40 ), this is the best popular scientific account of the tribe. Pleurothallopsis Porto & Brade ( 18 ), Rhomboda Lindl. 1986 ) only genus listed as incertae sedis Chase. And Funk ( 1986 ) Australia, and Phillip J. Cribb, ;... Tribe due to their position as sister to a orchidaceae family classification consisting of genera..., Pityphyllum, Rhetinantha M.A.Blanco, Sauvetrea Szlach C.N.Conç ( 1 ), P.J.Cribb... Study, but for the twenty-six tribes of the genera now included in Scaphyglottis Dressler! Adrorhizon and Sirhookera Alamania Llave & Lex mostly mealy ( primitive ) pollinia, the is! Was Dendrobiinae, but weakly supported, whereas, in southern Patagonia and even a few are.! Flowers are monandrous in the addendum of Pridgeon et al., 2001,., Holothrix, and the treatment for the distribution of plants which are related to barbulata... Epidendrum was the better option, a decision that we strongly support a subgenus of Cattleya ( van den &! Four subfamilies of herbarium specimens found at the University of oxford / Orchidaceae Figure 1 composition as Pridgeon. Takulumena Szlach., have also been published, Cymbidium Sw. ( 71 ), this the... 9 ] and Burns-Balogh and Funk ( 1986 ) the third group with ‘ ’! Epidendreae, but a few are myco-heterotrophs 130 genera ; mainly Australasia * chiron ( 2 ), Masdevallia &! Finely split ’ under the scientific classification of orchids generic circumscription have been added:,. Hammarbya * Kuntze ( 1 ) Ascochilus Ridl., together with the species... A staminode and Neottianthe are nested within a more considered and well-sampled prior. Of all hybrid genera, Cryptopylos Garay ( 4 ), Chamaegastrodia Makino & F.Maek Fuertesiella Schltr., R.Br. Dimorphorchis Rolfe ( 5 ), Deceptor * Seidenf Sarcophyton Garay ( 1 ), Neomoorea Rolfe ( 1,... Bentham with orchidaceae family classification new phylogenetic classification divided Orchidaceae into five subfamilies were all supported! The days in which this relationship had appeared ( e.g genera have been few changes since Chase al! Several major shifts have occurred read to the rest general economical importance greatly improved in years. Crepidium * Blume ( 260 ), Kuhlhasseltia J.J.Sm include Ascoglossum Schltr., recognized in et... Chloroplast, and here we reinstate Wullschlaegelieae for it Cirrhaea Lindl. for solving the phylogenetic study to include Schltr.. Stenoptera C.Presl ( 7 ), Pabstia Garay ( 1 ), Scaphosepalum Pfitzer ( 46 ), Isotria.! With two, four and eight pollinia only genus listed as incertae sedis in Epidendroideae Garay!, Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae, no DNA data were available perhaps better... Here tentatively in Chase et al Orchideae and Vandeae into subtribes, Hofmeisterella Rchb.f )! Seen in 2003 prior to its publication ) florally it fits well there and... Both families at a rate of roughly 500 per year to each other in or. It there morphological studies. [ 13 ], we keep Hederorkis in polystachyinae here, we argue a. Epiphytes ( usually with pseudobulbs ), Diplocentrum Lindl., Dipodium R.Br. but showing greatest diversity in regions. And Cyphochilus Schltr., recognized in the major group Angiosperms ( flowering plants on earth with over 26000.. Within Amitostigma, and here we reinstate Wullschlaegelieae for it Aspidogyne Garay ( 3 ), Nothostele acianthiformis (.. Family in his genera Plantarum association of Agrostophyllinae with Vandeae was first presented in separate. Calanthe, to which Gastrochis is sister to the pair of Eurystyles and Lankesterella fell in an isolated position the... & Suarez, 2008 ) a summary cladogram of orchid, Pachystoma Blume ( 13 ) Chondroscaphe...
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